Sailing Directions for the Island of Newfoundland, the Coast of Labrador, and the Gulf of St. Lawrence – J. Imray and son, 1855
FOR THE ISLAND OF NEWFOUNDLAND THE COAST OF LABRADOR AND TEIE GULF AND RIVER ST LAWRENCE COMPILED CHIEFLY FROM THE SURVEYS MADE BY ORDER OF THE SAILING DIRECTIONS
British and French Governments
BY CAPTAINS H.W. BAYFIELD, RN; F. BULLOCK RN; JAMES COOK, RN; MICHAEL LANE; DES BARRES, LOCKWOOD, LAMBLEY AND OTHERS; AND BY CAPTAIN C. F. LAVAUD of THE FRENCH NAVY
LONDON PUBLISHED BY JAMES IMRAY AND SON
CHART AND NAUTICAL BOOKSELLERS
ST PIERRE The island of St Pierre lying at 11 leagues W by N from Cape Chapeau Rouge is about 4 leagues in circuit and barren in the extreme consisting of a mass of rugged hummocks rising to a height of 400 or 500 feet directly from the sea and destitute of trees On coming from the westward Galantry Head the southeast point of the island makes in a round hummock and the land near it being low gives it the appearance of a small island it may also be recognized by its fixed light which is visible 18 miles off The port is on the eastern side of the island at only a mile to the north westward of Galantry Head and is bounded on the east by Chien or Dog Island eastward of which are two other islands and several rocks. The passage in between Dog Island and St Pierre is very narrow and bordered with rocks but in mid channel are 6 4 3 5 and 6 fathoms The harbour is small and has from 20 to 12 feet water but there is a bar across the entrance with only 6 feet at low water and 12 or 14 at high water.
The road lies on the NW side of Dog Island and will admit ships of any burthen in 8 10 or 12 fathoms water The best anchorage is on the north side but in general it is rocky and exposed to the NE winds Becautious in going in or out of some sunken rocks which lie about a mile ESE from Vainqueur Island which is the easternmost of the islands above mentioned.
Upon Canon Point on the north side of the entrance to the inner harbour in latitude 46 46 52 N longitude 56 7 23 W is a lighthouse with a fixed light about a quarter of a mile eastward of the town which is kept up from the 1st May to the 15th November With the lighthouse bearing W by N or WHN about two cables length there is anchorage in 5 and 6 fathoms
THE ISLAND OF COLOMBIER lies very near to the NE point of St Pierre and is rather high between them is a passage one third of a mile wide with 12 fathoms water On the north side of the island is a rock named Little Colombier and about one quarter of a mile ENE from it is a sunken rock named Basse du Colombier with 2 fathoms on it.
GREEN ISLAND is about three quarters of a mile in circuit and low it lies ENE about 5 miles from St Pierre and nearly in the middle of the channel between it and Point May on Newfoundland On its south side are several rocks above and under water extending 13 miles to the WSW
LANGLEY or LITTLE MIQUELON – Langley Island lies to the NW of St Pierre with a passage of about 3 miles wide between free from danger It is about 8 leagues in circuit of a moderate and equal height excepting at the north end which is a low point with sand hills off which on both sides it is flat a little way but every other part of the island is bold to There is anchorage on the NE side of the island near Seal Cove in 5 or 6 fathoms a little to the southward of the sand hills on a fine sandy bottom
MIQUELON is joined to Langley by a long narrow range of sand hills having a beach on each side Miquelon is 4 leagues in length from north to south and about 5 miles in breadth at the widest part The middle of the island is high land named the High Lands of Dunne but down by the shore it is low excepting Cape Miquelon which is a lofty promontory at the northern extremity of the island On the SE side of the island is the little harbour of Dunne a bar harbour admitting fishing shallops at half flood but no way calculated for shipping.
Some rocks named the Miquelon Rocks extend off from the eastern point of the island under the high land 14 miles to the eastward some are above and some under water the outermost are above water and there are 12 fathoms water close to them with 18 and 20 a mile off. At NE 1/2 E about 4 miles from them lies the Miquelon Bank on which are 6 fathoms water.
The chief roadstead of the island is large and spacious it lies towards the north end and on the east side of the island between Cape Miquelon and Chapeau which is a very remarkable round mountain near the shore off which are some sunken rocks at a short distance but everywhere else it is clear of danger. The best anchorage is in 6 or 7 fathoms near the bottom of the road on fine sandy bottom but exposed to easterly winds which bring in a heavy sea the mark is the signal in one with the church in such a position as to hide Soldier’s Point by Chatte point
The Seal Rocks two in number are above water and lie about 1 leagues off from the north west side of Miquelon The passage between them and the island very safe and there are 14 or 15 fathoms water within a cable’s length all round them.
The islands of St Pierre Langley and Miquelon were ceded to France by England on condition that no forts should be built on either that no more than fifty men of regular troops should be kept there and that they should have no military stores or cannon capable of making a defence. During the late hostilities these isles were annexed to the Government of Newfoundland having been taken possession of by the British forces in May 1798 but they have been restored to France on the original conditions by the treaty of 1814